Balloon Angioplasty India

Balloon Angioplasty in India Coronary artery disease is also known as CAD. It is due to a condition known as atherosclerosis in which the artery wall thickens due to accumulation of plaque is made up of cholesterol, fatty compounds, calcium, and a blood- clotting material called fibrin. Due to the plaque, the artery becomes narrow, making it difficult for blood to flow to the heart.

When the block condition is more severe, the blood flow to the heart slows andlead to a condition known as angina pectoris. In which potions often have squeezing, suffocating, or burning feeling in their chest. Due to the extra demand of blood in the heart results in pain during exercise or times of emotional stress. The narrowed or blocked artery can cause heart attack.

" Heart Attack"when the blood clot completely blocks the coronary artery supplying blood to the heart muscles and the heart muscles dies. Hence heart Attack is the sudden death of the heart muscles from the blockage of the coronary artery due to blood clot. The coronary arteries supply the heart muscles with blood and oxygen. Due to blockage of the coronary artery the heart muscle is deprives of blood and oxygen, resulting in injury of the heart muscle. This causes chest pain and chest pressure sensation. If within 20 to 40 minutes blood flow is not restored to the heart muscles, irreversible death of the heart muscle will begin to occur. Eventually dead heart muscle is replaced by scar tissue.

There are number of medicine to relieve the angina pain that comes with CAD. But medicines cannot clear blocked arteries. The option is a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), such as balloon angioplasty or a stent.

Balloon Angioplasty

Interventional cardiologists perform angioplasty, to open narrower and blocked arteries. They uses catheter which is a long thin tube that has a small balloons on the tip. The balloon is inflated at the blocked site in the artery to compress or flatten the plaque against the artery wall. This open up the blood vessel for improved flow, the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. A stent can be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure that the blood vessel remains open.

Along with the coronary arteries in the heart, balloon angioplasty is also used to open narrowed vessels in many other parts of our body. For instant, doctors can perform carotid angioplasty to open narrowed carotid arteries, these are the arteries that supply blood to the brain. A stroke most often results when the carotid arteries become blocked and the brain gets insufficient oxygen. Angioplasty can be performed in the aorta this is the main artery that comes from our heart, the iliac artery in our hip, the femoral artery that is in our thigh, the popliteal artery behind our knee, and the tibial and peroneal arteries that is in our lower leg.

What is a stent?

A stent is a small, mesh-tube made of metal inserted in the natural passage in teh body. When a stent is inserted in the coronary artery, it acts as a support or scaffold that keeps the vessel open. By keeping the vessel open, the stent improves flow of the blood to the heart muscle and reduce the pain of angina. Usually Stent procedures can be used along with balloon angioplasty. About 80% of patients having balloon angioplasty will have a stent placed as well. Doctors now uses stents in many other parts of the body other than heart. Stents can also be placed in the carotid arteries in the neck, in the peripheral arteries in the legs, and in the aorta.

Nearly 35% to 40% of patients who have balloon angioplasty have the risk of developing more blockages in the treated area. This is known as restenosis. In most cases restenosis happens within 6 months after balloon angioplasty. Arteries having stents can also re-close. In about 20% of patients with stents restenosis can occur. Patients have to go for another balloon angioplasty or stent procedure in case if restenosis occurs.

Doctors are trying to get new ways to prevent arteries from re-closing after an angioplasty or stent procedure. In some cases stents are coated with medicines this prevent the vessel from re-closing. These stent coated with medicine slowly release their medicine in the tissue around the stents, thus slowing down or stopping restenosis.

Researchers have also designed smaller stents and custom-designed stents that can fit into smaller vessels. Stents for vessels that have many blockages, which includes vessels with side branches are also being designed. In some cases stents are coated with blood-thinning medicines to prevent blood clots formation within the stent. Researchers, most recently are working to develop non-metal stents that will dissolve into the artery over time. These stents give the same result as metal sterns and open the artery and reduce the risk of restenosis.

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