Orthopedic surgery IndiaOrthopedic surgery or orthopedics (or orthopaedics) is the stream of medicine concerned with conditions and treatment involving the human musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons in India implement both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, degenerative diseases, sports related injuries, infections, tumors and congenital deformities.
Some of the different branches of orthopedic are:
* Pediatric orthopedics
* Orthopedic trauma
* Hand surgery
* Shoulder and elbow surgery
* Musculoskeletal oncology
* Total joint reconstruction or arthroplasty
* Hip Replacement Surgery
* Knee Replacement Surgery
* Foot and ankle surgery
* Spinal surgery
* Rotator cuff surgery
* Surgical sports medicine
Using arthroscopic techniques in India has been particularly relevant for injured patients. Arthroscopy was first used in the early 1950s by Dr. Masaki Watanabe of Japan to undertake minimally invasive cartilage surgery and reconstruction of torn ligaments. Arthroscopy procedures helped patients recover from the surgery in a short span, rather than the weeks or months required by conventional, the so called 'Open' surgery. Knee arthroscopy is one of the very common procedures performed by orthopedic surgeons today. It is often combined with meniscectomy (the surgical removal of all or part of a torn meniscus) or chondroplasty (surgery of the cartilage). Many of the orthopedic procedures are nowadays performed arthroscopically.
The modern day total hip replacement was pioneered by Sir John Charnley in England in 1960s. Charnley discovered that joint surfaces can be replaced by metal or a very high density polyethylene implants cemented to the patient's bone with methyl methacrylate bone cement. Since Sir Charnley, there have been continuous improvements in the design, technique of joint replacement (arthroplasty) with other contributors like W. H. Harris whose team at Harvard college pioneered the uncemented arthroplasty technique with the patient's bone bonding directly to the hip implant.
Knee replacements using a somewhat similar technology were first tried out by McIntosh in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Later the same were used by Gunston and Marmor for osteoarthritis in 1970s. Uni-compartmental knee replacement is the kind in which only one weight-bearing surface of an arthritic knee is replaced. This is an alternative to a total knee replacement and used in a select patient population.
Different kinds of joint replacements are also available for other joints on a limited basis. Examples being the most notably shoulder, wrist, elbow, ankle, spine and even fingers.
The knee in the human body is a hinge joint involving the thigh bone and the shin bone. Knee replacement surgery is a technique that removes a diseased knee joint and replaces it with an artificial joint (prosthesis). One of the most common reasons for this operation is severe osteoarthritis, which causes relentless pain, joint deformity and mobility problems. Knee replacement surgery is known as ‘total knee arthroplasty’.
A unicompartmental knee replacement is at times used instead of a total knee replacement. This is when only one side of the knee has been damaged by osteoarthritis. Unicompartmental knee replacements involve smaller incisions, reduced bleeding, quicker recovery, and less bone loss than a total knee replacement.
Knee replacement surgery procedure
During a knee replacement surgery, the bone and cartilage on the end of the thigh bone (femur) and top of the shin bone (tibia) are removed. This is performed using precision instruments to create exact surfaces to fit the implant. A metal and plastic knee replacement implant is then fitted in to function as a new knee joint. Based on the condition of the cartilage on the undersurface of the kneecap, this may also have to be replaced. Indian hospitals provide you world class medical treatment at very competitive costs.
A total hip replacement - also called a hip arthroplasty- is an advanced surgical procedure that re-structures the hip joint region.
Under this procedure the head of the femur (the bone that extends from the hip to the knee) is removed along with the surface layer of the socket in the pelvis (the two large bones that rest on the lower limbs and support the spinal column).
The head of the femur bone, which is situated within the pelvis socket, is replaced with a metal ball and stem. This stem fits into the shaft of the femur.
This socket is then replaced with a plastic or a metal and plastic cup.
Hip replacement is indicated where conservative management has failed. Worldwide, more than 1 million hips are replaced annually. With careful patient selection and meticulous surgical technique, good long term results occur in over 90% of cases.
The surgical procedure
At the time of surgery, once the hip joint is exposed, the head and neck of the femur are removed. The shaft of the femur is then adjusted to accept the metal component consisting of the head, neck, and stem. After fixing the plastic cup the ball and socket are then replaced into normal position. Both of these implants can be fastened into the bone with or without using the special cement.
The cemented procedure utilizes a doughy substance mixed at the time of surgery that is introduced between the artificial component and the bone. This type of fixation in total hips remains the gold standard and is the method of choice for many surgeons. Depending upon their health and bone density, people over the age of 60 will receive this type of joint fixation.
Despite its common use, not all individuals are candidates for a cemented hip. Studies show that young active adults tend to loosen their artificial components prematurely. The current trend therefore, is to use an artificial joint covered with a material that allows bone tissue to grow into the metal. A tight bond of scar tissue if formed, which anchors the metal to the bone. This is called a cementless total hip replacement.
Apollo Hospitals, Max Healthcare and Fortis Hospitals specialise in these kind of treatment
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